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 Заголовок сообщения: Этикетка(ярлык) в древнем мире
 Сообщение Добавлено: Пн окт 04, 2010 9:24 pm 
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Историк-любитель

Зарегистрирован: Вс окт 03, 2010 4:17 pm
Сообщения: 6
Откуда: Riga
Здраствуйте,
вот читаю занятную книжку(Sacred signs), там в одной из первых глав упоминается об найденных в гробнице этикетках(ярлычках), привязанных к горшкам. Очень заинтересовала эта тема, но материалов найти не могу.
Может кто-то знает, использовались ли подобные этикетки в других странах древнего мира, и где можно найти такую информацию.


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 Сообщение Добавлено: Вт окт 05, 2010 3:53 pm 
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Зарегистрирован: Вт ноя 14, 2006 1:31 pm
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Цитата:
и где можно найти такую информацию.


Можно, наверное, позвонить в Древний Египет :D

А вообще можно хоть взглянуть на эти этикетки? Чтобы знать о чем хоть речь :) :)


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 Заголовок сообщения: Ярлычки
 Сообщение Добавлено: Ср окт 06, 2010 8:12 pm 
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Зарегистрирован: Вс окт 03, 2010 4:17 pm
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Откуда: Riga
Вот нашла фотографию той таблички, о которой я читала.
Описывается она в книге Пенелопы Вилсон(Sacred Signs)

Изображение
Изображение

Автор сообщает о том, что такие вот ярлычки из ивы или эбонита(?) были приделаны к горшкам в гробнице 4го фараона 1ой династии Дена(Дина) около 2950 г. до н. э.

Изображение

и хранятся сейчас в Британском Музее.
Вот описание на сайте музея:
"Jar labels are one of the most important sources of written material of the earliest Dynasties. In later periods, it became more common to write on the jar in hieratic script. It seems that these early labels performed a more important function than simply to indicate the contents of the jar. In fact they are probably the first commemorative medium from ancient Egypt.

At the top of this label is a scene of a king seated in a small kiosk on a pedestal. The kiosk is approached by a stairway. To the right, the king is shown running. Both these scenes are central elements of the sed or jubilee festival. The texts beneath may refer to conquests of the king. The name of one of the high officials of the reign, Hemaka, who was buried at Saqqara, is also written on the label. The oil contained in the jar is called 'setji-her'.

The label comes from Den's tomb at Abydos and was excavated by Flinders Petrie; the tomb has recently been re-excavated by the German Archaeological Institute using modern techniques. The Institute discovered an extraordinary seal-impression with the names of several First-Dynasty kings.
A.J. Spencer, Catalogue of Egyptian antiqu-4 (London, The British Museum Press, 1980)

A.J. Spencer, Early Egypt, The rise of civil (London, The British Museum Press, 1993)"

А вот, что написано в книге:
"The wooden label (British Museum 32.650) measures 8 cm by
5.4 cm and the text on it reads from right to left. At the top right of
the label is the attaching hole and the tall vertical sign at the very
right is a notched palm rib meaning ‘year’, so this reads, ‘The
Year of . . .’. The scene at the top right shows a figure seated on a
stepped platform inside a booth. He wears a White Crown and
holds a flail of office. In front of him a figure wearing the Double
Crown of Upper and Lower Egypt and holding a flail and rod is
running around two sets of hemispherical markers. The event is the
Sed-festival, when the king proved his fitness and strength after a
period of time in office by running around a marked course.
The scene below is less clear but seems to show a walled enclosure
containing several hieroglyphs, perhaps the name of a town. To the
left is what was originally interpreted as a small squatting figure of a
woman with several hieroglyphs in front of her which may be her
name. Behind her is a man wearing a head-dress and carrying an
oar and a staff. Three hieroglyphs above him show a vessel with
human legs, a bolt of cloth, and possibly a vulture sign. Behind him
the two top signs spell the second name of Den and the lower sign is
some sort of portable shrine. The damaged scene below contains
bird, land, and plant hieroglyphs. The large area to the left contains
the serekh bearing Den’s name and to its left is a title, ‘Seal bearer of
the king of Lower Egypt’, and the name ‘Hemaka’ (written with a
twisted rope, a sickle, and a pair of arms). Hemaka was an
important and powerful official of Den. To the left is another
rectangle containing signs, of which the last one is a word meaning
‘to build’. Beneath is a word meaning ‘House of the King’. The
hieroglyphs in the lower left part of the tablet can be recognized and
mention the ‘Horus Throne’ and a dais. They seem to record further
that the label was used on a jar of oil, perhaps recording its date of
production or precise provenance. Alternatively, the oil may have
been symbolically connected with the events depicted, either as
anointing oil or offering oil. The tablet records ‘The year of a
Sed-festival, Opening the festival of the Beautiful Doorway’, and
perhaps something connected with the building of the king’s palace.
As is clear from this part-interpretation, the signs have much
information to give and act as a fully fledged writing system.
Altogether fragments of thirty-one such ‘annal’ labels are known
from Den’s tomb and they mention events such as the ‘Journey of
the Reput on the Lake’ or ‘Capture of the wild bull near Buto’. There
is a clear tradition of recording events both with cultic and
economic benefits. Other inscribed objects were found in Den’s
tomb including stelae with the names of people buried with the
king, inscribed game pieces, and jar sealings. Some of them repeat
‘cultic events’ from the labels such as the Lower Egyptian king
spearing a hippopotamus and, of course, record the name of the
king. The most interesting personal object from Den’s tomb was the
lid of an ivory box inscribed to show that it had contained his own
seal of office.6
There is also a hint that in cult temples the display of royal power
was dependent on the integration of hieroglyphic writing and
organized depictions of rituals or commemoration of events. The
most famous example from this time is the Narmer Palette,
apparently of Dynasty 0–1 (c.3100 bc) made of slate and decorated
in raised relief. Found at Nekhen, it shows King Narmer, his name
written with catfish and chisel hieroglyphs, as king of northern
and southern Egyptian kingdoms. As the king of the southern
Egyptian kingdom, probably centred on Nekhen, Narmer is about
to brain his enemy, who is shown as culturally different. His death is
not shown because the moment depicted is the precise second
before the king acts – he can take life or give life. As the king of the
northern Egyptian kingdom, perhaps centred on Nubt (Ombos),
the king takes part in a victory parade surveying the decapitated
bodies of his enemies and accompanied by a boy or man carrying
his sandals and by a person wearing a heavy wig and leopard-skin
garment. The figure is either his chief minister or a high-ranking
priest. Though palettes were used to grind down pigments for use as
bodily adornment, the size of this palette, its decoration, and the
hieroglyphs on it suggest it was meant for display in processions or
in the sanctuary of the temple to Horus at Nekhen. It
commemorated the acts of Narmer and his devotion to the god
Horus."


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 Сообщение Добавлено: Пт окт 08, 2010 3:28 pm 
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Зарегистрирован: Вт ноя 14, 2006 1:31 pm
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Лично у меня информации нет на этот счет, сорри :)
Но третье тысячелетие до н.э. - это такая туманная даль, что и свидетельств-то практически нет. Едва неолит окончился., цивилизации только-только зарождаются. Посему можно наверно, с большой уверенностью предположить, что такие ярлычки, кроме как в Египте и не встречались.
Но кто его знает, может все-таки потом где-нибудь и встретяться :) :)


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 Сообщение Добавлено: Вс ноя 28, 2010 1:32 pm 
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Историк-любитель

Зарегистрирован: Чт ноя 25, 2010 6:03 pm
Сообщения: 5
Откуда: Россия
А для чего они крепились ? Какое их предназначение?

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ничто не вечно


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